Anaesthesia for minimally invasive cardiac surgery



minimally invasive cardiac surgery, anaesthesia, mini-sternotomy, robotic-assisted cardiac surgery


Cardiac surgery is a complex field with ever-evolving techniques and technologies aimed at improving outcomes. It has developed rapidly since the 1950s when it was still associated with high morbidity and mortality. Some of the first cases of minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) were performed in the 1990s, when laparoscopic general surgery was rapidly growing in popularity.1,2 MICS has evolved tremendously since then and currently even includes robotic surgery. Although there is still no consensus on the definition, MICS can be thought of as cardiac surgery through several small thoracic or sternal incisions instead of the conventional full median sternotomy, in an effort to avoid complete sternal splitting and even cardiopulmonary bypass, when feasible.1,3,4

Author Biography

N Manitshana, University of the Witwatersrand

School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa






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